0:00:16my name you hear
0:00:18it's joint work we can make the quality and driving is well that's are
0:00:24i australia this that's george running manner
0:00:27you can see where very active group and we are linguists
0:00:31from a university pairs of it
0:00:35and we're going to talk about
0:00:37when do we love
0:00:43in previous work has been found that laughter is very frequency compensation
0:00:48it happens they are different speakers but
0:00:52frequency between
0:00:53six fifty times per ten minutes
0:00:58laughter can takes
0:00:59very useful in terms of its
0:01:02four eight six
0:01:03and occur in a variety of context
0:01:06but if i are you
0:01:09when do we have
0:01:10i think we maybe not your body find someone the street
0:01:14it probably like
0:01:16that's we live when someone tell us the joke or we'll off when we have
0:01:20been tackled but actually those two occurrences are not the most frequent context for laughter
0:01:27and i'll show you a few examples i don't so we know that laughter is
0:01:31contagious meaning that we more likely to laugh in social settings we more likely to
0:01:37what we're in the presence of others
0:01:39so just to show you
0:01:41a different type of context that laughter can
0:01:44can't occur i have got from
0:01:50so i've got this one i'll just show your view
0:01:58the numbers your
0:02:01is used for all their
0:02:06model for portable my school seems to
0:02:46we think that i i'm glad you guys a lot and so here is a
0:02:51common may need for example after you know goes failure i mean does not to
0:02:56get if at a guys is a failure videos are you to that people like
0:02:59to watch a lot of about it
0:03:01and but even he's laughing about it
0:03:04but if he broke is provided
0:03:06i probably okay he wouldn't and his friends probably would not either
0:03:10that's not that only happened in happy moments okay
0:03:15so i'll show you ever very unlikely context for laughter
0:03:19and show all of you know about the terrorist attack in paris
0:03:24when so this bands that you go that's
0:03:28you don't of death metal
0:03:30and four groups they were drafting the in the battle close the a fiesta with
0:03:36a lot of people
0:03:38and you knew about the terrible story so this is the video
0:03:42of an interview
0:03:43of the people from the band
0:03:45you know this something under raising the are talking about the most horrible experiencing their
0:03:50lives that you wouldn't think they would laugh right but actually a little bit of
0:03:54a little bit
0:03:56the describing what happen
0:04:02or you know you have just so as to the gunfire
0:04:06actually instinctively from my perspective it seems you see
0:04:12we see that
0:04:13and it will have a
0:04:20okay that more usable or knowing that
0:04:27but i don't use also his friends patted him on the on the shoulder and
0:04:32he laughed as a little off a little one
0:04:36and here's a another
0:04:38there you know everyone's really more than once we don't
0:04:42our knowledge this reason for you know you have just so this case the gun
0:04:48actually instinctively from my perspective sushi sue
0:04:54so that little or no
0:04:56and here when he's talking about again they were hiding the one of the rooms
0:05:01of the back
0:05:03is reduced since we don't very few people would be shot
0:05:08we people's which were ranchers the door
0:05:13years ago maybe for each
0:05:15as someone have led to
0:05:18is a little elf is a overlapping with speech
0:05:22it was trying to say someone has left able or something
0:05:26the bottles you mean room
0:05:31these examples of course they feel laughter is very different from the from the from
0:05:36the first example
0:05:38it can really locally in the very different context
0:05:41and although it's that laughter most likely occur in the presence of others
0:05:46will be interaction you can also happen we just by ourselves
0:05:51so here is in another example when
0:05:53the grandmother is laughing all by myself
0:05:56they see section the sky on the one and thanks to the i
0:06:17that a lot about their going on there
0:06:21so i showed you that laughter can really take very different forms as you can
0:06:25see the plastic one you goals of that metal example is very different from the
0:06:29other two
0:06:30and that's and i can occur in very different contexts
0:06:35and also i was trying to say that laughter is contagious
0:06:39so here's a very interesting example talking about laughter and dialogue
0:06:43so this is a core are also
0:06:46the question was
0:06:47what's your best random conversation with a stranger
0:06:50and this example is a also size
0:06:54it wasn't a traditional confirmation process anybody when likeness
0:06:57i mean having to mt anyway to start laughing to myself it funny takes no
0:07:01phone i will then maybe standing opposite me smiles at me
0:07:05me grin still giggling slightly men grumpy face
0:07:09and then me come stop eating
0:07:11is beginning to wonder woman catches my right laughing
0:07:15slightly i mean me for problems for the laughing gasping for breath now
0:07:19women burst out laughing at me magical is that women laughing
0:07:22add to me and when the elevator continues to the bottom or in absolutely as
0:07:27running down phase hysterics as we exit the elevator
0:07:31so here's the conversation of or interaction of just laughter
0:07:35okay so let's do some scientific research about their the current state of research and
0:07:42after is that most studies this working psychology working social still social linguistics in conversation
0:07:52then we have looked at its laughter
0:07:55a lot about
0:07:57on it is also be used laughter
0:08:00independent context
0:08:02as stimuli
0:08:03and all they study laughter as a response to humorous
0:08:08but there are very few there are some but not very many studies about laughter
0:08:12in conversations
0:08:14if two we had dialogue you want to study laughter in dialogue what can we
0:08:20if we think about this we can study we can approach it from
0:08:24of three direction
0:08:25we can study the precondition of laughter
0:08:28many we can think about
0:08:30what triggers laughter
0:08:31we can we can look at the context of laughter
0:08:35so what is graphical kernel and in what in what kind of order
0:08:40we kind of what study laughter features of laughter
0:08:43of the of it so we can study the
0:08:46the for meaning the phonetic the phonology of laughter we can study all
0:08:51for propose a semantic meaning of laughter
0:08:55and we can of course look at laughter
0:08:58each of laughter in you know
0:08:59why the that features that are universal
0:09:01or whether the other language and cultural specific
0:09:05i is we can study the post condition of laughter meaning
0:09:08the effects of laughter on dialogue no interaction
0:09:12so we can study
0:09:13what can expect a lot of the have some discourse in terms of
0:09:16for the interaction
0:09:18we can study the effect on the speaker the addressee and you're interaction in terms
0:09:22of affiliate even those right
0:09:25and let's look at two issues
0:09:27one in the preconditioner whining the post condition
0:09:32in precondition we have this question
0:09:34which is
0:09:35what does not have to happen
0:09:37and there is a very commonly assumed to while slide widely cited
0:09:42idea is that laughter
0:09:44one laughter is about is what it follows
0:09:47so the idea is that's we say something
0:09:50and we laugh about its task or data it "'cause"
0:09:54i if is really right so studies as far as we know try to resolve
0:09:58what laughters about by looking at one laughters adjacent to
0:10:04and there's a lot of conclusions based on this assumption
0:10:08that's most laughter is about something been i'll
0:10:11this is a very widely cited idea from providing
0:10:15because they look is what laughter formal
0:10:18and that's will have more is what we see ourselves
0:10:22so this is one issue is it true that one laughter is about is what
0:10:25it follows
0:10:26this is an issue with a question about the post condition
0:10:30so that we would like to know what kind of you fact
0:10:33laughter has on dialogue no interaction so can we have a meaningful
0:10:39functional taxonomy of laughter and currently doubt thousands of them systems
0:10:43in the market and there there's little agreement
0:10:47so we would like to ask what functions do not at all of them have
0:10:51there have and how well
0:10:53laughter can have so many different functions
0:10:56let's look at the first issue in terms of current state so
0:10:59is it true that's what laughter follows is what is about
0:11:03and if in a study by from one i twenty three they observed natural conversations
0:11:08and their methods was like this
0:11:10when an and when an observed or heard laughter should recorded in a notebook the
0:11:14moment immediately preceding the laughter the sorry the comments immediately preceding laughter
0:11:19and if the speaker or the audience laughed
0:11:23and they know that only ten twenty percent of the previous comments was humorous
0:11:29and that's they concluded that laughter is for the most part not related to humour
0:11:33but is about social interaction
0:11:36i did this conclusion from this study was that nothing never interrupts the each but
0:11:45also there's a study by a patent or two thousand four
0:11:49we also or milking et note that only timing
0:11:53parameters to decide what laughter is about
0:11:57so i think of missing one slide
0:11:59so but
0:12:00these studies assume an adjacency relationship between laughter and laughable so what the laughter is
0:12:06referring to
0:12:09we would like to question this assumption because this assumption hasn't been studied
0:12:15then what the preceding comments
0:12:17he's the reference
0:12:19and it is not amusing itself image in which to refer to when using event
0:12:25so and if we mention is dialogue a says
0:12:28to remember that time and then both in time we're laughing
0:12:33that the batteries do you remember that time is not humorous in itself
0:12:37but do not able to all the reference it will be for this interaction is
0:12:41has been reached
0:12:44reference you are in hd notation of that event
0:12:47every that right
0:12:50that the water okay so second issue
0:12:54how many times sub-block how many types of laughter other if we want to have
0:12:58a good taxonomy functional taxonomy of laughter
0:13:01i'm currently there are
0:13:02so many
0:13:04so for example
0:13:05this a suggestion that's we can distinguish
0:13:10we can have a binary distinction between physical
0:13:13and the emotional after
0:13:14and the pirate was ninety nine three proposed at least eight
0:13:19different social functions including affiliation
0:13:22aggressions torture anxiety fear joy
0:13:25source of all
0:13:27as you need i don't want nineteen ninety four proposed three types of laughter
0:13:31laughter due to pleasant feeling social after laughter for each intention
0:13:37higher a lot of the two thousand three oppose not different three types of laughter
0:13:41approach when you release intention or is the called euler
0:13:45and control i don't when two thousand five proposed
0:13:48what i
0:13:50hearty laughter muse laughter
0:13:52that's recall after and social actors so on so forth
0:13:55and so as you can see they really this very little overlap
0:14:00and we believe that one we have the lack of agreements in terms of functional
0:14:03taxonomy of laughter
0:14:05is that there are several layers relates relevant to the analysis of laughter
0:14:09and different classification system and even types within the system all related different layers of
0:14:15analysis so just as an example
0:14:18in spite of ninety three taxonomy
0:14:23meaning to agree is roughly be
0:14:25location to react performed by laughter
0:14:27well actually is the feature of the emotional trigger severe really relating to different levels
0:14:33so we need to have a linguistic approach
0:14:36to study that are so here's our proposal we propose to look at laughter linguistically
0:14:42at any events map and a full
0:14:45and so there's a again common assumption that laughter has only emotional content and no
0:14:51propositional content
0:14:53for example and two thousand thirteen
0:14:56and we argue that laughter needs to be integrated with linguistic input
0:15:01and for the following reasons first of all
0:15:03second be was the aspects other than the communicative emotion
0:15:10very often
0:15:11we ask about clarification questions in terms of what is funny
0:15:15so when you have
0:15:18understands the emotion that you're communicating what we don't understand
0:15:22is the reference
0:15:24that's this laughter is referring to
0:15:27i'm not
0:15:28right okay
0:15:33and i spent so much time on the video
0:15:38we so we propose a multi layered approach to study laughter where we distinguish for
0:15:44meeting and function
0:15:46so in terms of
0:15:49we know cats
0:15:51mostly now in our study
0:15:54contextual features
0:15:55an instance of meeting
0:15:57we look is we are proposing
0:16:00one semantic meaning a unified semantic meaning with two dimensions
0:16:04an instance of function
0:16:06we look at things like feature and prosecution reacts
0:16:10the semantic meaning we propose that too much
0:16:14but not
0:16:15one is the laughable and the are the other is the arousal
0:16:24to quickly about the so here's a problem proposal in terms of the semantics of
0:16:29and we say that the meaning of laughter is guys the appraisal the laughable
0:16:35triggered by triggered a positive psychological shift with the times and that you
0:16:40of delta
0:16:41and meaning of laughter is
0:16:43how do you context dependent
0:16:45and this meeting well aligned with context reasoning can generate a wide range of functions
0:16:52go quickly about the arousal dimension with a that's not after a trick as a
0:16:57possible positives like logical shift
0:17:00and that's
0:17:02the arousal dimension signals the amplitude of this shift
0:17:06this is a continuous dimension
0:17:08and that it doesn't signal be overall emotional states
0:17:12so if someone laughing doesn't mean that overall this person has a positive emotional states
0:17:18that's there is the positive shift
0:17:20and in terms of what we propose at the moment three a degrees
0:17:26it can run you can be triggered by the laughable can be of type
0:17:31a playful enjoyment like the prime are running the a rollercoaster
0:17:35can be about in contrast
0:17:38for example
0:17:39when the band member found able to champagne
0:17:43i about in groupness
0:17:46okay so
0:17:47i'm really ready on time
0:17:49i was a so we studied
0:17:52i nine in natural dialogue
0:17:55this is
0:17:56from our own corpus
0:17:58our jump to
0:18:00so we call it is
0:18:01several levels things oneself
0:18:04at the four level we had look at
0:18:06whether laughter overlapped with speech there's temporal sequence where the laughter following of the laughter
0:18:11we had no cats in some solo laughter not available
0:18:14what incurs before during all have the laughable
0:18:17in terms of semantic meaning we have quotas
0:18:20the perceived arousal and the type of laughable
0:18:26so in some way that we think there's in congress you or not
0:18:29and in functions we are we have a roughly binary distinction between cooperative function
0:18:36and non-cooperative function but i'll show you
0:18:38a more detailed functions later
0:18:42our job all of course i'm sorry about that's
0:18:45so all we i don't i six hundred and around six hundred sixty laughter events
0:18:50we found that it's very frequent the average
0:18:54duration it's about
0:18:57under two seconds
0:19:00and we found that since a novel the most frequent have above is described events
0:19:06followed by extra for a conventional something happening the physical context rather than the linguistic
0:19:12followed by metalinguistic divan sounds for example if i is if a mispronounced a word
0:19:19and we found that
0:19:21there are more self produced laughable then part to produce laughable meaning is true that
0:19:27will have more often about what we set ourselves
0:19:30i still
0:19:31that's laughter immediately for the laughable if the true that what laughter follows is what
0:19:36laughters about well we actually found that there is the rubber free alignments between the
0:19:41laughable i'm the laughter
0:19:42so here is the other graph
0:19:44channel plotting the distance between the end of the laughable and the beginning of the
0:19:49and it's you can say they in the time peaks at zero
0:19:53that's the average number actually below zero and there's the wide range
0:19:57so laughter can really ago called long before the laughable
0:20:01during the lovable and i and after all
0:20:05we find that only thirty percent of laughter
0:20:09happens immediately after the laughable
0:20:12whereas but the majority of laughter the most frequently laughter happens during the laughable
0:20:20okay in terms of context of form-related his we find that
0:20:25dyadic laughter is very frequent meaning that was that one is very frequently your partner
0:20:30withdrawing laughter
0:20:32forty percent of laughter encoding immediately after we had the same time as partners laughter
0:20:37and have to very frequently overlap with speech around forty to fifty percent of laughter
0:20:42occur at the same time as speech
0:20:44mean i we want to have an actual dialog system we need to be able
0:20:48to generate speech
0:20:49that's has like overnight laughter
0:20:54i we found that laughter fast interrupt utterance of was very frequently we laugh with
0:20:59someone else is speaking in the middle sentences
0:21:01but sometimes we put a bit of laughter
0:21:05we now on utterance
0:21:08okay in terms of mean e
0:21:10we found the majority of laughter actually have low arousal so they have low intensity
0:21:15initial duration and arousal correlates with duration
0:21:19and that the majority of the laughable each other to communicate recognition of incongruity
0:21:26there's something concordance so for example nothing have to saying someone has found a bottle
0:21:32of champagne that's signals that's finding a bottle of champagne this context is incompetent
0:21:41so this is domain specific because these functions
0:21:45are the most frequent function in our corpus because our proposed is natural
0:21:49cooperative dialogue and we re well it's definitely not the case that this is of
0:21:56functional taxonomy full or laughter in all kinds of dialogue but you know you know
0:22:01that you know what was
0:22:03the most frequent function for laughter is to show enjoyment
0:22:06followed by
0:22:07and there's a function called smoothing and soft ending so this is a well as
0:22:12social function of laughter and
0:22:15and there is show agreement
0:22:17to mark funding this
0:22:18to mark that will you about the same normally is funny and something called been
0:22:23have anything to action so this function this a traumatised being
0:22:28hence being it's being used in that you're already
0:22:32i mean is
0:22:33so a very common example been everything the action is rising something like could you
0:22:38give me a couple of a coffee
0:22:41that laughter i used to trigger happy not its meaning that i want you to
0:22:46be close to me something like that okay
0:22:50very quickly one minute
0:22:52so we want to
0:22:54we want to see
0:22:56if we can use context one form related
0:23:01features to predict all kinds characterize function
0:23:04basically there is no single form
0:23:07a related features that can characterize
0:23:10and distinguishable kinda function
0:23:12but we
0:23:14and that specifically one thing is that french and training have very similar distributions and
0:23:20it's very similar
0:23:22signature in terms of these form-related yes
0:23:24and that's
0:23:25well as different as well
0:23:27to show enjoyment is one of those frequent after that has normally
0:23:32a wide range of duration but tend to be known duration
0:23:36i been addressing the action and smoothing is often means that meaning that politeness related
0:23:42time and
0:23:44with low is
0:23:46this is slightly less duration
0:23:49and that happen it's was the end of the laughable
0:23:54okay i think a rerun of running around trying to the detailed a please refer
0:23:58to our favourite so i don't we can conclude
0:24:00that's the we propose a semantic pragmatic accounts and thing which laughter is treated as
0:24:05the gestural events and of all and that's in terms of data we found that
0:24:11frequent speech floppies frequent
0:24:14dyadic laughters the joint laughter is frequent we found that the distribution of laughter not
0:24:18always rather free and only about thirty percent of laughter happening immediately after laughable
0:24:24i is the majority of laughter is about incongruent stimuli
0:24:28with low arousal
0:24:30and that's a we found in a group was for frequent functions characterized by a
0:24:34class of layers
0:24:36curve form-related layers rather than a single layer
0:24:40and guidepal frequency most patterns are very similar between in french and english french in
0:24:46suggesting that have to behavior might be largely language and culture independent
0:24:51a topics or stop here
0:25:23that's it happens already
0:25:25most likely so i think two possibilities one is to do with incremental processing and
0:25:30predictive processing right
0:25:32so very of the we can predict what's
0:25:35the end of the sensors
0:25:36so very of the we know what exactly someone else to say
0:25:39is about to say that's why i could be why we could laugh solely before
0:25:43well the reference it of laughter is even finished
0:25:46and the other one yes i think most definitely their ability gesture cues and also
0:25:52on the visual expression account find that could indicates
0:25:57that i'm about level you should love
0:25:59we did capture body movement of fisher expression data using connect but we have analyzed
0:26:04that yet
0:26:05but as a good suggestion
0:26:14and it wasn't the cases when laughing laughter happened right quite already is because you
0:26:20can we can predict what about k
0:26:22roughly all that someone has said mid sentence and we basically no the rest and
0:26:27we start laughing
0:26:28and that's you know like language every other aspects of language processing that is incremental
0:26:41no one is to study laughter acquisitions of the we found that and these the
0:26:46optimal a three year old
0:26:48the laughter pattern of a child is nowhere near
0:26:51i don't so
0:26:53and so we were thinking one thing is to link laughter behaviour is the only
0:26:58indication of autistic
0:27:00spectrum because
0:27:00laughter although it seems to develop it develops lonely it is one of the only
0:27:05is things but they used to it around three months
0:27:09and we like to integrate a emotions we information state you know semantics would like
0:27:14to study what the smile after differ only in scale or do they have different
0:27:18functions and of course in laughter generation
0:27:44it's true and also a lot of time people jointly complete the laughable so when
0:27:49like someone is that how sent to the other one jumping in to complete this
0:27:53and this will them while laughing
0:27:57if you're image