Unsupervised Bayesian Adaptation of PLDA for Speaker Verification
(3 minutes introduction)
|Bengt J. Borgström (MIT Lincoln Laboratory, USA)|
This paper presents a Bayesian framework for unsupervised domain adaptation of Probabilistic Linear Discriminant Analysis (PLDA). By interpreting class labels as latent random variables, Variational Bayes (VB) is used to derive a maximum a posterior (MAP) solution of the adapted PLDA model when labels are missing, referred to as VB-MAP. The VB solution iteratively infers class labels and updates PLDA hyperparameters, offering a systematic framework for dealing with unlabeled data. While presented as a general solution, this paper includes experimental results for domain adaptation in speaker verification. VB-MAP estimation is applied to the 2016 and 2018 NIST Speaker Recognition Evaluations (SREs), both of which included small and unlabeled in-domain data sets, and is shown to provide performance improvements over a variety of state-of-the-art domain adaptation methods. Additionally, VB-MAP estimation is used to train a fully unsupervised PLDA model, suffering only minor performance degradation relative to conventional supervised training, offering promise for training PLDA models when no relevant labeled data exists.