thank you very much um for the introduction yeah so i will talk about um uh something that's i guess a little bit different from the rest of the talks of the session sessions about compressed sensing and i guess sparse representations so this fall a a more under sparse representation and compressed sensing all be talking about the you rank minimization problem um so problem which you have a low-rank matrix and you make a linear measurements of its entries and want to recover the matrix um so you can think of for there being a sparse representation in the sense that it's a low-rank matrix so the degrees of freedom in the matrix is not the number of entries in the mate um um and i want to look at the um nuclear norm minimisation an actually threshold but uh determining thresholds that allow was to recover the matrix a a perfectly joint work with my graduate students some at ten yeah okay so or say a few words about the rank minimisation problem uh uh why it matters and some applications of of where it comes up and the you relaxation as the nuclear norm relaxation um and i'll focus is i said in this talk on trying to predict the um recovery thresholds for this algorithm or mentioned some prior work then i'll i i guess um formally define the problem we want to look at um the main contributions of the paper or are you know type conditions for a recovery and then obtaining a new recovery thresholds and not talk about the all say if you word about the technical details involved in this analysis and the reason why i'm gone only say a few words is because and as all mentioned towards the end after we submit this paper um we obtain some new results which kind of trump every are going to say here today um but i you know i have to say them anyway but i'll tell you something about new results still be presented it to high a T and a couple of months and saint petersburg um so if and you are gonna be there a i may here about them there okay so what is the problem we're looking at so um this is this session i guess on sparse representation and so sparse is become very popular compressed sensing is the can you know um perhaps most popular um problem in this area another situation where you get sparsity is when you have a low-rank matrix okay so if you think of a low-rank matrix um a general matrix that's say uh and one by an two as and one times and two degrees of freedom in it if it's low rank it has much less a roughly the rank times the dimension of the matrix um and so if you think of the matrix in terms of its singular values you know the singular values are sparse if it's a low rank matrix because um most of the entries of the singular values will be zero um this problem comes up in a variety of um um applications the comes up a lot in control a in particular in system identification if you want to if you have measurements of the system and you want to um you know figure out a a low order system that matches that you know you if you look at the hankel matrix the comes out say from your measurements that has to be low rank and so on it comes up in a collaborative filtering problems you may have heard of the net flicks problem comes up there comes up but a lot of learning problems and recently people back to actually looked at you know traditional cs type problems like last graph clustering and that been able to show that you can put it in gennan into a rank a minimisation problem if you look at the adjacency matrix of a graph you want to say clustered to to things are almost clique like uh it essentially boils down to identifying a low rank components in the um a if you will adjacency major it comes up you know a lot of application a let me formally define what it is so we have some matrix X not which is a rank and we're given some measurements of its components and so i'm i'm representing that by this script a and the only thing that matters right no use me for script a is that this is a linear operator so i'm making linear and measurements if you will of the entries of this matrix and you know uh the measurements are such that you know um if this is a and one by and two matrix there's and one times and two unknowns your but i making much fewer measurements nonetheless i want to be able to recover the matrix "'cause" i know what's low right and so the problem that will try to solve this to minimize among all matrices that are consistent with what i measure the lowest rank um again this is a difficult problem as the compressed sensing problem is a a because of the fact the rank function is not convex and so the approach to solve this is to relax the rank with the nuclear norm of X the nuclear norm being the sum of the singular values of X okay so this is similar to compressed sensing where you take an L zero norm and you relax an L one norm of this relaxation was first and i think in that phd thesis of marry "'em" files oh and and ninety nine or two thousand um it goes back to that and you know just as in the L one case the reason why this makes sense because the nuclear norm in some sense tightest convex relaxation for this problem um in the same sense that you know the L one ball is the tightest if you will convex body that contains you know um all of your sparse vectors this is the the the if you look at the nuclear norm ball it's smallest convex part that contains all rank one matrix okay now let me say a few words about the measurements so there's two types of measurements of people have looked at and right minimisation problem one is where you actually is a entries of the a tree a random in this case the problems called matrix completion so you see certain entries of the matrix and you want to uh figure out what the remainder of the entries are um and you know so the net flicks problem certainly falls under this kind of a uh situation uh another type of measurement is when the measurements that you get a are actually inner product of the entries of the matrix time some measurement matrix a a eyes a inner products is really trace of a are that um so you just form linear combinations so each measurement to some linear combination of the entries of a and this is natural actual for example in in quantum tomography more type problems because you are act is typically you know the state of your system and it's a linear combination of a few pure state so it's low right and in quantum the type of measurements you make or of of this type and so it's very natural there X also somewhat actual in some other applications okay so for the matrix completion problem there's an analysis that's been done there's conditions on when you can actually recover from a looking in entries of the matrix it require something called incoherence um and the proofs of this use dual certificates some uh by guess convex optimization technique the inner product measurement these types of measurements are much closer to the types of measurements that we're familiar with and compressed sensing when you do you know and the measurement matrices and so a lot of the compressed sensing results um can be a translated to this a particular case here to the inner product K in particular things like a write P where you have a right be conditions say on your measurement matrix that guarantee but you can recover things in compressed sensing have their analog see here there are alright P type conditions on these they eyes the guarantee that nuclear norm minimisation works likewise similar to the null space property is that we have and compressed sensing there null space property again and all i'll talk about these a bit more um in the yeah i guess in this uh inner product measurement case that allows nuclear norm minimization were um and so it's in fact these that'll be the focus of today okay so so let me say if few words again about prior work uh with regards to a right P um so people as i said that looked at is this and and M means nuclear norm minimisation they've studied it based on a right P in fact the first paper that is it at this is from two thousand seven it's by wrecked files a real oh um and they're are the first row actually look at the nuclear norm minimisation using uh ideas some compressed sensing and they gave some results on when you can actually be cover low rank of made um doesn't isn't planned have recently improved the results again using our i P type results what they've shown is that to recover a a a rank are and by and matrix you need on the order are and a a measurement so if you think of you know a rank are and by N matrix no there's roughly are are and um degrees of freedom in it and so this is saying you need of the same order measurements to be able to recover um and you see will will improve on this results quite a bit um people have also looked at to recovery using that the null space property and all talk more about this um in the null space case it's easiest to do the analysis when your measurements are i i D gal shannon oh i'll talk about that a bit more and what people of observed one they actually run algorithms like the similar to the compressed sensing case there's of type phase transitions so if you're fixing the number of measurements you're making and if the dimensions of your matrix or fixed and everything is large you know as you increase the rank some phase transition beyond which you can never recover and below which you almost always recover and so a what we want to do is to see if we can find analytically what that as transition is um okay and so a a a a a a few years back with better act where you shall we tempted um to determine this phase transition and i'll show you some of the curves later in terms what we did that um um and so what we're trying to do in this paper was to extend a lot of the results that exist conventional compressed sensing and so um donoho again a few years back um for conventional compressed sensing when you have i i D gal should measurements determined um what these phase transitions were um and um use the grassmann angle approach to are all talk more about this in a moment but the idea is that you can recover signals if the null space if you will of your measurement matrix um lives outside certain polytope sent to to guarantee that they'll about side those certain polytope to to compute the grasp an angle and so uh the difficulty in the matrix problem is that the null space condition no longer gives you a polytope but something nonlinear and so this approach does not stand which is why we had difficulties here and or or get into those details of what why why things are much more complicated to okay um let me say something think about the uh types of recovery is that we want so will introduce three notions of recovery there's a strong notion oh if i have a collection of i have a measurement matrix also say you know i have strong recovery ability if i can recover any low-rank right matrix up to a certain rank okay um if i can recover all matrices a call that's strong i'll call sectional recovery ability if it's not for all low-rank matrices but all matrices um who was column and row spaces are fixed so are looking at low right matrices whose column and row roll us fans are fit rather than that it's are so if i could cover all of those are call it's section sectional we recover ability is a recover of a particular low right matrix of i give you a low rank matrix if i can recover it all call it week and so strong if you think of it applies to being able to recover all matrices we can some sense a a means that i'm able to recover almost all my in fact when you do simulations what you actually encounter is the week one "'cause" you could never check whether you recovering every matrix site um but this is the the transitions that you observed in in practice not sure you curves toward the ends of the talk all correspond to the week special again this have natural counterparts and compressed sensing that people of an um and so what i'll do in this paper is i'm gonna if you strong uh recovery conditions uh for all three of these that improve on what's there in the literature and based on the were able to actually improve on um bounds on the phase transition okay so let's go to this a little bit more detail um so again so the the measurements that we're looking at their some linear mapping so they take and and one by and two matrix that's oh right matrix i'm trying to recover and maps it to some and measurements and here represents the number of measure my and so am is a lot less than say and one times and two are not seeing every entry of matrix a making fewer measurements but i want to recover a given that i don't things are low rank and again here the way i am going to you these measurements is that each measurement is obtained by an inner product with an i i yours "'kay" and so what we mean my strong recovery ability which i alluded to on the previous slide this strong recovery threshold is the largest number or are for the right of the matrix so that all your and read matrices with rank R can be recovered from the new norm relax ish okay um and so clearly and one an N two goes up you imagine the right will go up um uh and so it's a but actually the other way around as and one and two goes of the right goes down because the from fixing the number of measurements a more degrees of freedom and if i increase and um of course are will and so here's the theorem um and it's actually this there um that is of this to to analyse things better that in in in the practise of this there is if and only if it says any matrix of rank at most are can be recovered via nuclear norm minimisation by of this if and only if um it's an null space condition so for any matrix W that's in the null space of this operator so script a applied to W Z able to zero so any matrix in the null space again this is a linear greater if the following property holds for all W than as i said it's if and on if and and and what that property is is that you look at W you compute its singular value order order them and if this some of the first are are are uh where R is the right you're looking for is less than the sum of the rest then that's the condition and we need it for every double uh again those of you might be familiar with the um no space condition in compressed sensing this is very much the analogue of that in compressed sensing again you look at the null space of your measurement matrix and you say you the condition is the absolute value of the are big should be less than the absolute value of the sum of the remainder trees and so what happens in the matrix case is the absolute value gets replaced by that's all that happens here the difficulty is that in the compressed sensing K those inequalities is that you got essentially give you a polytope because they're all if you will linear in W here it's much more complicated because of the presence of this about so these inequalities none of them are uh okay and so there's a pro for this which is in the paper but i won't go into it's based on some majorization zero and again it's really this condition that's allowed us to improve the there there was no okay if you look at this section all case so the you recovery for in in the sectional sense is that you know so what you do is you P um sub-spaces as S P and ask Q of say dimension R and you defined projection operators on to these two sub-spaces and you say something has a uh sectional recovery if all right are matrices whose columns spans rest P S Q can be cover um um and then there's a condition again if and only F for that which um you can you look at the null space of your measurement it's W when you require part this to all the nuclear norm of P W Q where P and Q are these projection matrices should be less that's a again it's an if and only if condition and then finally the week um threshold is for an arbitrary X not you want it to be recovered up to rank are again through a nuclear norm minimisation um and the if and only if condition here is the following so you take your X not you do the S D and basically require a for everything and then all space at this condition holds it's to trace condition person of here um so that's what we need to analyse and the difficulty in analysing this is that you need for example these conditions to hold for every element W in the null space of your measure now when you're measurement matrix is yeah our it turns out that the elements in the null space also get should distributed um and so you kind of want to condition to this hold for all gal oceans in in that null space and that's where the difficult um uh again again just introduce a some notation for i show you the main result and the curve so again the matrix is gonna be and one times and two i'll take N one less than N two um and so the aspect ratio think of that as being the quantity a alpha i'm gonna look at a rank that say data times and one where and one is a small of a small once a bit is less than one L was less than one and then again the number of measurements i'm going to make is proportional to the size of the matrix and one and two and again the proportionality less than one which would be know and so what i want to do for example is i'm going to say and one and two and you know the number of measurements i'm making an i want to see how big are get that will be the the threshold and to describe a threshold i need this quantity gamma of alpha and beta which are parameters of the problem uh and it's basically defined is this quantity here expected value of the sum of the first alpha beta and um singular values of some i i D J made with this normalisation becomes a yeah a quantity independent of that okay so that's what this a and it can be computed at give the expression here but a standard random the matrix there will allow you to the their close form expression um and so there's is of the results so we have um bounds on the threshold this is for the week sectional and strong threshold and there in terms of alpha beta um and the gamma function okay so let's look at what these are thresholds threshold look like so what i thought it here um so here is the number of samples i'm making so if if i might sit point five that means i'm i'm making the number of measurements half the a a number of entries in the matrix what i have here so with point five five getting something around points it uh this is a surrogate for the ranks what it really means is you know it's it's the inverse of the oversampling sampling at eight point five multiplied by point six a gives a point three which means i can recover matrices up to right point three and so this but they should have said is for square measure some taking and twenty four ten and looking at point to and here it's point five i have to multiply this it point want it so it's saying if i observe one fifth of the entries of the matrix for for make that many measurements i can go up to ranks that are one ten time that's this threshold that we're trying to predict and that their rooms that i just showed you do the following predictions so that's the weak threshold this is the section of this is strong and just to show you how it improves on the previous results this was the previous a strong threshold and that that the dotted line which matches are section was the previous a weak threshold so we've improve them quite a bit but still it's quite a bit off um but it least in this regime it works well um and they get you know i i won't go into that the the technical details of this because this is that these results were all trumped but basically the difficulty in analysing this problem is that you have pointed is like this that you need to bound for all W it's little the way we did that was we essentially bound the expected value the E and then used some concentration of measure type results so if you can on the expected value of things like the and there's there and to do that then if you can prove which it's S and you use concentration inequalities of a lot of hard work yeah style but as i said after we set made it this paper we came up with another analysis um um and that analysis essentially gives this these solid curves that's the weak threshold this is the weak threshold of the current paper this is the sectional threshold this is the current paper this is a strong in this and paper and pretty much this is on the money now um so we're actually able to analytically project a threshold it um it's not this paper it's the i at paper i'll just make a little bit of a um advertisement for where this result comes from the difficulty in what we're trying to do is we're trying to extend a close approach approach to computing compressed sensing thresholds and those are difficult to do "'cause" it's based on grass an angles which you can compute in principle for polytope would for these nonlinear objects are much harder to do but you know student of mine against advertise for his work of a couple years back came up with an alternative approach for compressed sensing based on an escape through mesh type idea to compute L one optimization threshold and the good news is is this is analysis direct but it stands to uh the matrix case and allows a to basically um compute the threshold is that and and the results are are are you know analytical and i'll give you a sense of the so if you look at the strong recovery the number of measurements has to satisfy this so for example in the square case one and one is equal to and two this becomes sixteen or okay now if i have a rank R matrix roughly there's are and entries in and a two are N to be a specific and so sixteen are and is eight times that so you need eight times more measurements than the right strong recovery threshold and that's why here what you see this point here that is a strong curve it's one over eight um or they weak recovery this is what you get a and one and one is equal to to this becomes six R and and so you're three times more than the number of degrees of freedom of rank R matrix and um again this point here is one third um so i guess i'll stop here i mean so i i explain with these thresholds were and um we had results but as i said you know we can now these exactly and so it it's a so stuff can bit of i think that the so um first have to have made i'm i'm really and a a medium with things um and that did i got to correctly yeah mean and if i give you matrix and if that if you have um and measurement operate that it satisfies nice properties you can really actually we caff but really X like increase in the matrix four interest that's what the the of these rank minimization problem do so as i said there are a lot of the compressed sensing where you have a sparse signal when you make measurements of the entries and these of when you're combinations you can recover a signal um because you have sparsity in here if you have a low rank and you make measurements you know you see certain entries trees are a linear combination certain trees you can recover the entire matrix by to the fact that low thank hmmm huh oh thing yeah so the analysis for galician in so even in the um compressed sensing case um where you can do exact analysis for the the threshold is only in the gash she case now what people of there it is um so for example if you take an i i D or should matrix you can compute threshold that's with donna who did um if you use a tape not not i i yeah or shouldn't it's say are i E burn will these are other types of stuff and do our one optimization people observe aim um phase transition at the same point even you know if you look at sparse measurement matrices things like expander graphs and so on they seem to exhibit the same thing uh and Y that is not fully understood there's a paper or um in the proceedings of the ieee by don a where he talks about this the various thresholds and this universal looking behavior so we don't fully understand but it appears to so the analysis for the gal should is doable but it appears that you know the result is more universal and um we haven't done as much uh investigation for the uh matrix rank minimization problem is the compressed sensing his roughly we've seen the same um you you propose now and uh but i i one ask um if it is possible to find addition in these the rooms i i promising master i no i mean is so this is similar again you know so if you're familiar with um uh a even in the compressed sensing case when you look at the so there if and only if conditions for where and you can actually recover a sparse signal and its again in terms of the now the the null space conditions you have to look at every vector in the null space of your measurement matrix and it's so those in principle cannot be check yeah it it easy to show that it's and be hard to do so here it's even more so because you're null space is is is a tree um which is the reason why i when people want to analyse these you go to these ensemble of of measurement matrices "'cause" there you can say that this property holds with very high probability uh but you the quick answer is that no the mean if you give me a matrix there's no way i can show a special happened here the matrix to be reconstructed hands particular symmetry well yes um so if if it's symmetric um uh uh it yes i i i did that there and but roughly what happens is the threshold get a by half so certainly at a very end it does so um if you're matrix is symmetric basically here that to goes away that for them and if you have a was still what's for local toeplitz case i don't know but um for example if you know the matrix is um non-negative definite then it again improve so you need fewer pressure um toeplitz i don't know um but that's an interesting question because yeah uh if you look at the system i D problem which is an important one you be doing it for a hankel matrix which them a but look at the room like to question is is the if it if you know which all positive but that is that what every entry being positive i haven't looked at that we we've analyse the positive semi-definite case but i haven't looked at the case with the matrix as well um no okay thank you so much you can